Two Layered End-to-side Duct to Mucosa Pancreaticojejunostomy

Video Type: CVideo
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Author: Lava Patel
Published:
Specialties: General Surgery
Schools: NorthShore University Health Systems, University of Chicago
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Basic Info

Contributors: David Caba-Molina, MD and Mark S. Talamonti, MD

The following video depicts our technique for performing a two layered end-to-side duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy without the use of a pancreatic duct stent, following the resection phase of a standard Whipple operation.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/wvi4b33r6r

Editor Recruited By: Jeffrey Matthews, MD

Advanced

Procedure

"There are a variety of ways to perform a pancreaticojejunostomy during the reconstruction phase of a Whipple procedure. Our preference is to perform a duct-to-mucosa anastomosis when the size of the duct and the texture of the gland allow. We have performed this type of anastomosis for ducts as small as 3-4 mm in diameter. We begin the reconstruction by delivering a retro-colic limb of the proximal jejunum through an opening in the transverse mesocolon created to the right of the middle colic vessels. The anastomosis is performed as an end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy. The transected end of the pancreas is mobilized off the splenic vein for approximately 1-2 cm. Superior and inferior branches of the pancreatic arterial arcade are ligated with fine 5-0 absorbable suture ligatures to prevent bleeding from the cut edge of the pancreas and to avoid ischemic necrosis or a crush injury at the cut edge of the pancreas by taking larger sutures with a great deal of pancreas tissue. Once the pancreas is mobilized, we place our first outer row of the posterior layer using interrupted 3-0 silk sutures. The sutures are placed posteriorly on the capsule of the pancreas about 5-10 mm from the divided end of the pancreas and then brought through a thick seromuscular bite about 5-8 mm from the anti-mesenteric edge on what will become the posterior layer of the jejunal side of the anastomosis. All of the knots are placed in an upward position as simple sutures with no attempt to bury or invert the knots. Before the silk sutures are tied, we place the posterior row of the pancreatic duct sutures. We use a 4-0 PDS type suture with a first stitch placed in the 6 o¢clock position. The duct is then dilated, and 2 sutures are placed superior to that 6 o¢clock suture and 2 sutures are placed inferior to that for a usual total of 5 sutures in the posterior layer of the pancreatic duct. Again, all the sutures are placed with simple knots in an upward position. The next layer of sutures is on the anterior pancreatic duct with care taken to assure a good bite of pancreatic capsule and bringing out the sutures from the 9 o'clock through 3 o¢clock location with 5 interrupted sutures. Once the pancreatic duct sutures are in place, the sutures are retracted anteriorly and superiorly, and the silk sutures between the posterior gland and the posterior bowel wall are tied sequentially. The sutures are then divided, and with the bowel having then been positioned in a side-to-end fashion with the cut edge of the pancreas, we perform a small enterotomy at the anti-mesenteric border of the intestine. The enterotomy usually measures approximately 4-6 mm in length. We then place four 5-0 PDS sutures in a horizontal mattress fashion circumferentially around the enterotomy to anchor the intestinal mucosa to the submucosa and bowel wall. This creates a helpful outward protrusion of the intestinal mucosa when placing the small sutures from the pancreatic duct. We then place the 5 posterior duct sutures into the posterior wall of the small bowel enterotomy. These are full-thickness stitches with care taken to place the sutures at approximately the same distance as they were placed in the pancreatic duct. These sutures are then tied and divided. The anterior duct sutures are then placed from inside the bowel to outside the bowel wall, again using full-thickness bites with the knots in a simple upward location. This layer is tied, and then the anastomosis is finished by completing the outer layer of the anterior row using another layer of interrupted 3-0 silk sutures from the capsule of the gland to the seromuscular surface of the anterior bowel wall. No pancreatic stents are usually used. Two drains are usually placed anterior and posterior to the anastomosis and removed on post-operative days 3-5 if the amylase levels are < 1.5 x the serum levels." -Mark S. Talamonti, MD

Indications

The procedure shown was indicated for a resectable, biopsy proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma localized to the head of the pancreas.

Contraindications

Distant metastatic disease; Locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma; vascular invasion precluding resection and reconstruction.

Instrumentation

Setup

The patient is positioned supine on the operating room table with arms out at the side, secured safely on bilateral arm boards. The attending surgeon stands on the patient¢s left and assisting resident/fellow on the right. (See diagram in video)

Preoperative Workup

The patient underwent a standard workup for obstructive jaundice. Typically, patients will have undergone a RUQ ultrasound or standard CT of the abdomen and pelvis prior to being seen by a surgical oncologist. These studies may be helpful in determining the etiology of the obstructive jaundice. A tissue diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma can be obtained by FNA biopsy performed during an EUS/ERCP. Although a tissue diagnosis is not required to be considered a candidate for curative resection, all patients with suspected pancreatic adenocarcinoma undergo a triple phase intravenous contrast CT with ultra-thin sections and 3-dimensional reconstructions (pancreas protocol) for further staging and operative planning. This high resolution, contrast enhanced modality provides dedicated imaging of the mesenteric vasculature and anatomic information regarding the feasibility of resection. Further staging includes a CT of the chest to rule out distant metastatic disease that would also preclude resection. Labs drawn include: CBC, BMP, Liver panel, coagulation panel and the biomarker CA 19-9.

Anatomy and Landmarks

The length of the jejunal limb needed may vary based on the location of the remaining pancreas. In any case, the jejunum is mobilized enough to allow for a tension-free, well-approximated anastomosis between the pancreatic duct and the small bowel mucosa from an enterotomy made on the anti-mesenteric border of the jejunum.

Advantages/Disadvantages

see Procedure section above and references for further details

Complications/Risks

See references for each below and further risk factors
Delayed gastric emptying
Pancreatic leak/fistula
Arterial stump breakdown (Pseudo-anuerysm of the gastroduodenal artery)

Disclosure of Conflicts

The authors have no disclosures

Acknowledgements

Lydia M. Johns, Medical Illustrator;
Kiran Thakrar, MD ¢ compilation of radiographic imaging

References

1. Berger AC, Howard TJ, Kennedy EP, et al. Does type of pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy decrease rate of pancreatic fistula? A randomized, prospective, dual-institution trial. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. May 2009;208(5):738-747; discussion 747-739.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic fistula (PF) is one of the most common complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. There have been no large prospective randomized trials evaluating PF rates comparing invagination versus duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy. We tested the hypothesis that a duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy would reduce the PF rate. STUDY DESIGN: Between August 2006 and May 2008, 197 patients at two institutions underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy by a total of 8 experienced pancreatic surgeons as part of this prospective randomized trial (clinical trial no. NCT00359320). All patients were stratified by pancreatic texture and randomized to either an invagination or a duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. Recorded variables included pancreatic duct diameter, operative time, blood loss, complications, and pathology. Primary end point was PF rate, as defined by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula. Secondary end points included PF grade, postoperative length of hospital stay, other morbidities, and mortality. RESULTS: Rate of PF for the entire cohort was 17.8%. There were 23 fistulas (24%) in the duct to mucosa cohort and 12 fistulas (12%) in the invagination cohort (p < 0.05). The greatest risk factor for a PF was pancreas texture: PF developed in only 8 patients (8%) with hard glands, and in 27 patients (27%) with a soft gland. There were two perioperative deaths (both in the duct to mucosa group), with the proximate causes of death being PF, followed by bleeding and sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: This dual-institution prospective randomized trial reveals considerably fewer fistulas with invagination compared with duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Results confirm increased PF rates in soft as compared with hard glands. Additional studies are needed to define the optimal technique of pancreatic reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy. 2. Warshaw AL, Thayer SP. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery: official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Sep-Oct 2004;8(6):733-741. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15358336 3. The Pancreas. In: Cameron JL. ed. Atlas of Surgery, Vol 1. 1st ed. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker, Inc;1990:409. 4. Liu QY, Zhang WZ, Xia HT, et al. Analysis of risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreaticoduodenectomy. World journal of gastroenterology. Dec 14 2014;20(46):17491-17497. ABSTRACT: AIM: To explore the morbidity and risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: The data from 196 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, performed by different surgeons, in the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between January 1(st), 2013 and December 31(st), 2013 were retrospectively collected for analysis. The diagnoses of POPF and clinically relevant (CR)-POPF following pancreaticoduodenectomy were judged strictly by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula Definition. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze the following factors: patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum CA19-9 level, history of jaundice, serum albumin level, blood loss volume, pancreatic duct diameter, pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatic drainage and pancreaticojejunostomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the main independent risk factors for POPF. RESULTS: POPF occurred in 126 (64.3%) of the patients, and the incidence of CR-POPF was 32.7% (64/196). Patient characteristics of age, sex, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum CA19-9 level, history of jaundice, serum albumin level, blood loss volume, pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and pancreaticojejunostomy showed no statistical difference related to the morbidity of POPF or CR-POPF. Pancreatic duct diameter was found to be significantly correlated with POPF rates by univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis, with a pancreatic duct diameter

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